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Computer Network

Computer Network
A network is a group of
interconnected systems sharing services and interacting by means of a shared
communication link. A network, therefore, requires two or more individual
systems with something to share (data). The individual systems must be
connected through a physical pathway called the transmission medium. All system
on the physical pathway must follow a set of common communication rules for
data to arrive at its intended destination. The rules that govern computer
communication are called protocol.
In summary all networks must have:
®    
Something
to share (data).
®    
A
physical pathway (transmission medium).
®    
Rules
of communication (protocol).
PC networks generally fall within
one of these two types:
1.     
Peer-to-peer
network and
2.     
Server-based
network
Below these are in details-
1.    
Peer-to-peer network:
Peer-to-peer network is an approach
to computer networking where all computers are equivalent for responsibility
and processing data. Each computer is actually acting as a client and server. They
don’t have a file server or a centralized management source. Each PC is called
a peer. In this network environment, resources are distributed throughout the
network on computer systems that may act as both service requesters and service
providers. They all have the same abilities to use the resources available on
the network. In a peer-to-peer network, the user of each PC is responsible for
the administration and sharing of resources for PC.
A Peer-to-peer network sometimes is
called a workgroup. This networks are ideal for small organizations where
security is not a concern. Nearly all modern desktop operating systems such as
Macintosh OX, Linux, and Windows can function as peer-to-peer network operating
system.
Advantages of
Peer-to-peer network:
·        
Less
initial expense- no need for a dedicated server.
·        
Setup- an operating system already
in place may only need to be reconfigured for peer-to-peer operations.
Disadvantages of
Peer-to-peer network:
·        
Decentralization-
no central repository for files and applications.
·        
Security-
does not provide the security available on a client/server network.
2.    
Server-based network:
A server-based network consist of a
group of user-oriented PCs that request and receive network service from
specialized computers called serves. In this network environment, resources are
located on a central server or group of servers. The file servers become the
heart of the system, providing access to resources and providing security,
individual workstations (clients) have access to the resources available on the
file servers. UNIX/Linux and Microsoft family of Windows Servers are examples
of server-based operating systems.

Advantages of
server-based network:
·        
Centralized-
resources and data security are controlled through the server.
·        
Administration
services are centralized making them easier to manage
·        
Scalability-
any or all elements can be replaced individually as needs increase.
·        
Flexibility-
new technology can be easily integrated into system.
·        
Mobility- it
is accessible 24/7. You can tap into your network’s resources, including
e-mail, from anywhere around the world.
·        
Security- Control
access to critical and private files on a person-by-person basis, and with the
inclusion of a firewall, the entire organization can be guarded from external
intrusions and attacks such as viruses.
Disadvantages of
server-based network:
·        
Expensive-
requires huge amount of initial investment in dedicated server.
·        
Maintenance-
maintenance is not easy.
·        
Complexity –
experienced system administrators are required to cope with the complexities of
managing these systems.
·        
Dependence-
when server goes down, the whole operations will cease across the network.

Admin

Declaration: Articles shared in this blog are collected from different sources available on the internet to help students of Library and Information Science. Sources are mentioned in the reference section of the article. If you have any objections about the content of this blog, feel free to contact the site admin at media24xnew@gmail.com

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