Question: What are the different types of socialization?
Types of socialization: Ian Robertson in his book “Sociology” (1977) has mentioned four types of socialization. According to him, the socialization that a person undergoes in the course of his lifetime may be one or more of four different types:
- Primary socialization,
- Anticipatory socialization,
- Developmental socialization and
1. Primary socialization: This is the most essential and basic type of socialization. It takes place in the early years of life of the newborn individual. It concentrates on the teaching of language and cogitative skills, the internalisation of cultural norms and values, establishment of emotional ties, and the appreciation of other roles and perspectives.
2. Anticipatory socialization: Men not only learn the culture of the group of which they are immediate members. They may also learn culture of groups of which they are immediate members. They may also learn the culture of groups to which they do not belong. Such a process whereby men socialize themselves into the culture of a group with the anticipation of joining the groups, it referred to ‘anticipatory socialization’.
3. Developmental socialization: This kind of learning is based on the achievements of primary socialization. “It’s builds on already acquired skills and knowledge as the adult progresses through new situations such as marriage or new job. These require new expectations, obligations, and roles. New learning is added to and blended with old in relatively smooth and continuous process of development”
4. Re-socialization: Not only do individual change roles within groups, but they also change membership-groups. In some instances, ‘re-socialization’-“the stripping away of learned patterns and substitution of new one of them”-must occur. Such re-socialization takes place mostly when a social role is radically changed. It may also happen in periods of rapid social mobility.