Human Resource Development and Manpower Planning
“Human Resource” is relatively a new concept in the field of management and organization and became popular during the early 1970’s. The term signifies the humanistic approach in solving social problems and also shows that managing people as resources rather than factors of production or simply as human beings with feeling and emotion could result better for both the organization and its employees.
Human as resource is the important and vital component for an organization. The success of the organizations is solely depend on the human resources especially when they are service oriented and deals with other human beings as their clients. It is the people who are dynamic can only build a progressive and growth- oriented organization. Effective people as employees contribute to the effectiveness of the organization. Competent and motivated people can make things happen and enable an organization to achieve its goal. Therefore it is very much essential to ensure that the dynamism, effectiveness, competency and motivation of its employees always remain at a high level.( Padmanabhan & Nityanandam ,2011)
Considering the importance of human as resources like any other resources of an organization, modern management consider Human Resource Development (HRD) programme as an integral part of the overall management practices of an organization. Human resource development is nothing but a process of helping people to acquire skill, knowledge and competencies. In an organizational context human resource development is a process by which the employees of an organization are helped in a continuous and planned way to acquire new competencies through a process of planning, performance, feedback, training, periodic review of performance, assessment of the developmental needs and creation of development opportunities through training, job rotation, responsibility definition and such other mechanisms.
The quality and performance improvement is the main objective of Human Resource development. While discussing manpower planning and resource development it is very much essential that all these aspects must be seen in the context of surrounding society, socio- economic change, the political system of a country. The HRD programmes are concerned with five kinds of changes, which are as follows—
❖ Changes in skills
❖ Changes in knowledge
❖ Changes in attitudes
❖ Changes in awareness of staff,
❖ Changes in motivation to perform
2. Human resource philosophy:
The basic principle of human resource philosophy as expounded by its proponents may be briefly expressed as, “Employees are viewed as investment and that will provide long term rewards to the organization in the form of greater productivity if they are managed and developed effectively. Managers create policies, programmes and practices to satisfy both the economic and emotional needs of the employees. They create a working environment in which the employees are encouraged to develop and utilize their skills and abilities to the maximum extent. Personnel programmes and practices are evolved with the goal of balancing the needs and requirements of the organization and those of the employees. (Ganihar & Nayak , 2011,p.2)
3. The concept of Human Resource Development:
Human resource development (HRD) is a dynamic and continuous process encompassing individuals, organizations and societies. It has been interpreted in various ways in different context and across culture.
The concept of Human resource development was introduced by Leonard Nadler in 1984 in a conference organized by the American society for training and development. Nadler defines HRD as “Those learning experiences, which are organized for a specific time and designed to bring about possibility of behavioral change”.( Ganihar & Nayak, 2011,p.11)
Among Indian authors T.V Rao worked extensively on human resource development. Rao defined human resource development in the organizational context as a process by which the employees of an organization are helped in a continuous, planned way to:
a) Acquire or sharpen capabilities required to perform various functions associated with their present expected and future roles;
b) Developed their general capabilities as individuals and discover and exploit their own inner potentials for their own and / or organizational development purposes;
c) Development of an organizational culture in which superior subordinate relationships, teamwork and collaboration among sub unit are strong and contribute to the professional well- being, motivation and pride of employees.( Ganihar & Nayak, 2011)
Dynamic and growth oriented organizations require Human resource development (HRD) to succeed in a fast changing environment. Normally, HRD systems would include the following mechanisms or sub- systems:-
a) Performance appraisal of employees
b) Career planning of employees
c) Training and development
d) Quality management
e) Productivity improvement
f) Improving quality of work life
g) Rewards for achievement oriented performances
h) Promoting team spirit
i) Periodic employee surveys and diagnosis of organizational health
j) Research and systems development
k) Storing of Human Resource Information
4. Needs of Human Resource Development:
In an organization employees need to have different kinds of competencies like knowledge, skills and attitude in technical and technological areas, human relations areas and conceptual areas to achieve its goal. Followings are the needs why human resource development is essential in an organization—
a) For survival and stability.
b) For continuous development of employees’ competencies to perform well in the constantly changing working environment.
c) To identify competency gaps of employees and train them to perform their present and future role effectively and create conditions to help employees bridge these gaps through development.
d) To enhance competency development in continuing basis for effective performance.
e) To increase the motivation of the employees to promote team building and collaboration climate.
f) To make them committed in their work.
g) To make them constant desire to put in effort and make things happen.
h) To make them trust each other in the workplace.
i) To encourage to take initiative and show reactivity.
j) To collaborate team spirit.
k) To increase quality and productivity
5. Components of Human Resource Development:
The Human Resource Development (HRD) programme is a planned activity of an organization. It must include a clear statement of goals and objectives of that programme. Beside this, it should also include the strategic and operational planning along with the appropriate means, mechanisms and instruments for execution. The components of HRD differ from organization to organization though there is very little variation among them. Followings are the expected components of HRD in the field of Library and Information Science.
5.1: Strategic and operational planning: Strategic and Operational planning defines the objectives of the organization, preparing policy guidelines, evolving pragmatic plans and strategies for executive actions and establishing appropriate procedures, rules and regulations for implementation at all levels. This would ensure:
❖ Personal involvement in work in achieving set targets;
❖ Enhancement of work skills;
❖ Increasing application of information technologies;
❖ Evolution of a corporate culture; and
❖ Continued progress and development.
This approach would encourage the organizations to plan their future staffing structures and to take into account the changes in services and technology. It has been expected that if this approach exercise properly and on continuing basis it could eliminate the problems of oversupply or under-supply of particular skills within an organization. It also aids the determination of training needs in relation to new skills required.
Operational planning takes care to implement and execute the activities and programms to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization. Further it handles personnel recruitment, section, placement and deployment and personnel skill development through training and hands —on experience. Moreover the exercises like job analysis, job description, job specification and structuring competencies could help to ensure right person into right job to achieve quality and to ensure work efficiency.
5.2: Evaluation: Evaluation is one of the most important parts of human resource development programme. Evaluation is an ongoing process which ensures a consistent quality of services to the institution or the organization. A proper and systematically commissioned and conducted evaluation can make an organization professional and result oriented in their approach and working.
5.2.1 Important requirement for sound evaluation:
a) Adequate preparation on the part of the evaluator/ assessor:- To do a successful and effective evaluation the administering group is needed to be well prepared. Many a time it has been seen that evaluations or assessments have take place without any proper preparation or without strong supporting materials to guide the efforts. Hence, through preparation of the administering and administered group in terms of the evaluation/ assessment is essential.
b) Adequate Technical Support:- To make evaluation effective and more meaningful adequate technical assistance in the form of information and training must be made available.
c) Fine tuning to the changing demands:- The evaluation or assessment practices need to be responded to the trend of changing scenario of the institutions or organizations in their respective fields. The changes may be either in the policy level or in the practice level.
d) Shared Language:- Very often it happens that the message of evaluation and its needs for overall development of the institution or the organization is not properly communicated. For that the purpose of evaluation could not be achieved as the whole process is not understood and sometime misunderstood by them who are to be evaluated.
e) Adequate Institutional Policies:- An institution or an organization often fail to develop and provide sound policies to guide the evaluation process. Therefore a sound policy is needed to help the evaluator to go in a right track.
f) Transitory Interventions:- Evaluation is carried out to bring a change in the system or to make a change for whom they are in the system. But the changes do not come quickly, pervasively or thoroughly. The people who are to be evaluated are needed to be convinced that these are real benefits to them. They put up with the change only as long as the program is being carried out.
g) Effective Instruction:- The evaluation of a given group requires a common language. A better understanding of the best practices required of evaluators is necessary to avoid common errors. At the same time, standards are necessary to guide evaluative decisions, develop grading systems that reflect appropriate criteria and improve preparation of those who conduct and use evaluation.
5.3 Motivation: Motivation is fundamental element of human management and to get the things done in the desired ways. It is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological need that activates behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a goal. It is the driving force by which human achieve their goal. Motivation can be defined as “It is the act of stimulating someone or oneself to get desired course of action, to push right button to get desired reaction”. Motivation is said to be intrinsic or extrinsic. Motivation is the third dimension of performance.
5.3.1 Needs and importance of motivation: Motivation offers several importance’s to the organization and to the employees. They are as follows-
❖ Higher efficiency
❖ Reduce absenteeism.
❖ Reduces employee turnover.
❖ Improves a corporate image.
❖ Good relations.
❖ Improved morale.
❖ Reduced wastage’s and breakages.
❖ Reduced accidents.
❖ Facilitates initiative and innovation.
5.3.2 Motivational factors: There are several factors that motivate a person to work. The motivational factors can be broadly divided into two groups:
I. Monetary factors:
a) Salaries or wages:- Salaries or wages is one of the most important motivational factors. Reasonable salaries must be paid on time. While fixing salaries the organization must consider such as :
❖ Cost of living
❖ Company ability to pay
❖ Capability of company to pay etc,
b) Bonus:- It refers to extra payment to employee over and above salary given as an incentive. The employees must be given adequate rate of bonus.
c) Incentives:- The organization may also provide additional incentives such as medical allowance, educational allowance, allowance, etc.
d) Special individual incentives:- Special individual incentives are to be given to deserving employees for giving valuable suggestions.
II. Non monetary factors:
a) Status or job title:- By providing a higher status or designations the employee must be motivated. Employees prefer and proud of higher designations.
b) Appreciation and recognition:- Employees must be appreciated for their services. The praise should not come from immediate superior but also from higher authorities.
c) Delegation of authority:- Delegation of authority motivates a subordinate to perform the tasks with dedication and commitment. When authority is delegated, the subordinate knows that his superior has placed faith and trust in him.
d) Working conditions:- Provision for better working conditions such as air-conditioned rooms, proper plant layout, proper sanitation, equipment, machines etc, motivate the employees.
e) Job security:- Guarantee of job security or lack of fear dismissal, etc can also be a good way to motivate the employees. Employees who are kept temporarily for a long time may be frustrated and may leave the organization.
f) Job enrichment:- Job enrichment involves more challenging tasks and responsibilities. For instance an executive who is involved in preparing and presenting reports of performance, may also asked to frame plans.
g) Workers participation:- Inviting the employee to be a member of quality circle, or a committee, or some other form of employee participation can also motivate the work-force.
h) Cordial relations:- Good and healthy relations must exist throughout the organization. This would definitely motivate the employees.
i) Good superiors:- Subordinates want their superiors to be intelligent, experienced, matured, and having a good personality. In fact, the superior needs to have superior knowledge and skills than that of his subordinates. The very presence of superiors can motivate the subordinates.
j) Other factors:- There are several other factors of motivating the employees:
❖ Providing training to the employees.
❖ Proper job placements.
❖ Proper promotions and transfers.
❖ Proper performance feedback.
❖ Proper welfare facilities.
❖ Flexible working hours.
The success of an organization is solely depend on the human resources especially when they are service oriented and deals with other human beings as their clients. It is the people who are dynamic can only build a progressive and growth- oriented organization. Effective people as employees contribute to the effectiveness of the organization. Competent and motivated people can make things happen and enable an organization to achieve its goal. Therefore it is very much essential to ensure that the dynamism, effectiveness, competency and motivation of its employees always remain at a high level.
6. Pre-requisites for a successful Human Resource Development:
The success of a Human Resource Development programme depends on various factors, which are enumerated as follows:-
a) Top management support:- HRD programmes are generally employees oriented and need the support of top management. The support may be moral support, financial support, administrative support etc.
b) Constructive attitude:- Both the management and the employees should have to develop constructive attitude towards each other. Mutual understanding and cooperation is very much essential for a successful HRD programme.
c) Developing sound policies and procedures:- The policies and procedures related to HRD programme should be well designed and revised timely according to the need of the organization. All the policies and procedures must be clear and understandable to everyone. Moreover, the policies and procedures must be acceptable for everyone.
d) Development of effective practices:- The implementation of various policies pertains to man- management selection calls for developing effective practices so that various policies could be translated into action. (Randhawa, 2012)
e) Good communication system:- There must be a good and prompt communication system in an organization to avoid any suspicion, rumour, doubt and misunderstanding between the management and the employees.
f) Follow-up of result:- This refers to the constant review of the HRD programmes so that existing practices may be evaluated and also the problem and undesirable tendencies can be identified. Besides these special emphasis should be placed upon gathering relevant information related with absenteeism, employee turnover, job satisfaction, grievances, disputes, wage and salary administration etc.
7. Strategy for Developing Human Resource:
There are different types of strategies for developing the human resource. The basic strategy of human resource development has been cited below:-
Regarding human resource development encouragement by the management of the organization is very much essential. Provision of in house training and job rotation among the working staff after a specific period of time is also very essential from the point of view of the human resource development. Continuing Education Programme (CEP) is another important factor for human resource development. Moreover, Continuing Education (CE) is also an important component of Librarianship in these days of rapid technological change and intensified career concerns. Elizabeth Stone define Continuing Education as any kind of learning experience that will introduce new skills or concepts, fulfilling the needs of the individual for career advancement and improved personal competency. (Meyers, 1990, p. 251).
8. Implementation of HRD:
The first step towards HRD in an organization is to set up a unit to deal exclusively with personnel development programmes. The mechanisms to implement these programmes are to introduce a process of performance evaluation of staff at all levels, assess deficiencies or under performance and such other deficiencies in performance. Necessary positive steps are to be taken and design specific instruments to set things right and get maximum productivity through the optimum efficiency of the staff. The HRD unit must concern itself with the following aspects:-
a) Performance appraisal:- Performance appraisal is nothing but the periodical evaluation of the performance of the staff. Proper evaluation can be carried out with appropriate yardstick; data on performance review and feedback from the employee are estimated with reference to the employee’s optimum potential.
b) Role analysis:- Role analysis s concerned with optimum stress, linkages and autonomy of an employee occupied a particular position. Optimum stress refers to tuning a person to raise his contribution to the optimum level. Linkages provide for infra and inter relation between individuals and teams within the units and outside. Autonomy permits an individual to show initiative in dealing with a new problem and finding a solution to it.
c) Training policies:- These are popular and widely practiced in most of the organizations to build up staff skills. Training has to be with reference to the types of training required by an organization. In — house training or training by professional bodies or institutions, evaluation of trained employees and utilization of training could be obtained.
d) Communication policies:- An appropriate internal communication system is very much essential to prevent unnecessary misunderstanding among the staff. The employees would also be properly informed about the activities and progress of the organization.
e) Job rotating:- Job rotation is nothing but the justified transfer of employees to become experienced and expert in different areas of work in different sections of an organization. This would also contribute to the health of the organization.
f) Organization development:- An organization has to be dynamic and should positively respond to the changes in environment, advances in technology and diversification of products and services. Growth and self- developing mechanisms are important for organization development.
g) Award, reward and incentives:- Award, reward and incentive schemes both for individual and groups may generate greater involvement of employees in work and contribute to quality assurance. But this scheme needs very judicious implementation to avoid unwanted situation which may affect negatively to the organization.
h) Organizational culture:- An appropriate environment is very much essential for the development of an organizational culture. Communication within the organization that permits top- down, bottom — up, horizontal, circular and external communication has to be built into the organization. This would ensure smoothness in employee- employer relationship. This is also very much essential to create a healthy environment to develop a work culture, contributing positively to the organization.
All the above aspects would be influenced by factors like management style, environment, technology, resource availability, background and past history of the organization etc. ( Dhiman, & Rani , 2005, pp. 158- 181)
9. Human Resource Development and Library and Information Science Profession:
The quality of Library and Information Centres is largely depending on the dynamic, motivated, skilled and competent staff and the infrastructure facilities provided for their service and development. The Library and Information Science (LIS) professionals are considered as one of the vital elements that can really make a library the knowledge hub. If the working professionals of a library are competent enough then he/ she could build a collection of information resources which really mean as resources and also could attract user through his/ her services.
Now a days there are lots of discussion on capacity building of different institutions and organizations. In case of Library and Information Centres, for effective capacity building and for effective implementation of service delivery capacity building focus on different aspects, which are as follows:-
a) Strategic management
b) Policy Development and Management
c) Ethics of Good Governance
d) Performance Management
e) Human Resource development and management
f) Target Setting
g) Bench marking
h) Monitoring and evaluation
i) Team Building
j) Managing and Leading strategic change
k) Effective Communication Skills
l) Negotiation skills and management
m) Total Quality Management
n) Management Information System
o) Time management
p) Customer care
( Source:- http://www.nmlindia.nic.in/pages/display/41-capacity-building)
It could be seen that almost all these sixteen aspects are somehow related to the human factor of the Library and Information centres. Therefore it could be established that Human resource development is one of the most important part of the management of Library and Information centres. As the libraries are service oriented organization they cannot keep themselves away from HRD practices and the benefits that can be derived by applying those practices.
Moreover, Library and Information Science is a profession in which changes undergo rapidly due to the adoption of Information and Communication technologies which itself is ever changing. Therefore, development of Human factor is a serious matter of concern for Library and Information centers. As a service oriented organization who serves human as their clients by some other groups of Human being, Libraries cannot think to achieve their goal without the development of its employees. Since the modern library movement, the importance of LIS professionals has been strength steadily all over the world. Today LIS professionals have to acquire and cultivate knowledge and skills for communicating the sought information to a variety of users in an efficient and effective manner.
Human Resource Development in the field of Library and Information Science can be done by various methods, which may be as follows:-
❖ The curriculum of Library and Information Science must be revised according to the need of the hour.
❖ Upgrading the skills of the working LIS professionals at all level to ensure the quality library services.
❖ Professional library staff should be accorded full academic and management status.
❖ HRD programme for in- service personnel should be organized on regular basis.
❖ LIS schools, professional associations and group should organized seminars, workshops, different types of training programmes for upgrading the knowledge and skills of the LIS professionals.
❖ A developmental plan and policy at the national level is essential for a planned growth of workforce.
10. Human Resource Development and the University Libraries:
Human Resource Development (HRD) is the need of the hour for the University Libraries as they are considered as the heart of the University education system. Libraries can become dynamic and knowledge hub in true sense only through the efforts and competencies of their human resource. Personal policies can keep the morale and motivation of the people high, but these efforts are not enough to make the organization dynamic and to take in right directions. The knowledge, skills and abilities of the employees must continuously need to be acquired, sharpened and used to make the organization dynamic and efficient. Therefore, it is very much essential that University Libraries of our country must re- orient their personnel policies with HRD programme as the guiding philosophy.
Moreover, one of the pressures which intensifies the need for personnel development in libraries is the influence of modem concepts which have tried to adopt to such contemporary realities as those summarized by Warren G Bennis (Kaur & Singh , 2007, p.365):-
a) Rapid and unexpected change;
b) Growth in size beyond what is necessary for the work being done;
c) Complexity of modem technology, in which integration between activities and persons of very diverse, highly specialized competence is required; and
d) A change in managerial values toward more humanistic democratic practices.
The constant need for change is another pressure, which intensifies the need for human development. The role of the library in its changing culture seems to be an issue everywhere. Evidence of cultural change alters the missions and goals of the library, modify its priorities, and call for change within the library to meet the challenges and needs of the society. It is believed that libraries,” like any other organization, can no longer afford to ignore the psychological, technical, technological, sociological, economic and political changes taking place , both in the external and internal environment of the organizations. Consequently the work of the library and information professionals has become increasingly complex.” Guy Sylvestre in the article entitled “Of book, men and machines” has rightly said that “we librarians have no choice accordingly but to adopt ourselves to a changing world, if we are to survive in this new era.”(Kaur & Singh, 2007,p.366).
The need of Human Resource Development in University Libraries is to-
❖ Enable professionals to acquire basic technical competencies at the lower level; Administrative competencies in the middle level; Management abilities at the top level.
❖ Create a climate of responsibilities among the professionals to their work.
❖ Develop the capabilities of an employee as an individual.
❖ Develop the competencies of each professional in relation to their expected future role.
❖ Develop the cordial relationship between each employee and their superior.
❖ Create the team spirit
❖ Achieve collaboration among different units of the organization.
❖ Work out the organization’s overall health and self- renewing capabilities.
Therefore, it could be said that Human Resource Development interventions are must for the growth and survival of the Librarianship in this era of Information and Communication Technology which may be in the form of education, training, continuing education, continuous professional development and development of the personal competencies etc.
11. Manpower planning in libraries to have competent staff:
The dictionary meaning of planning is the act or process of making something that is intended to do or achieve in advance. In other words it means a decision which has taken in advance what is to be done. Manpower planning is nothing but the planning about the human resource to achieve the basic objectives of the organizations. It is a process for determining and assessing that the organization will have an adequate number of qualified persons available at proper times, performing jobs which would meet the needs of the organization and would also provide satisfaction for the individuals involved. It involves:-
a) Estimation of present and future requirements and supply of human resources based on the objectives and long term plans of the organization.
b) Calculation of net human resource requirement based on present level of human resources;
c) Initiating steps to change, mould and develop the existing human resource to meet the future human resource requirements;
d) Planning the necessary programme to get rest of human resource from outsides the organization and to develop the existing human resources.
Thus manpower planning involves an analysis of the existing manpower, their skills and capabilities, as well as understanding of future requirement of the organization.
It is a strategy for estimation, acquisition, utilization, improvement and preservation of good component of human capital.
11.A. The preplan activities before manpower planning includes:-
(i) Collection of data for job specification and job analysis;
(ii) Preparation of flow charting for various operation and system analysis;
(iii)Subsequent quantification and interpretation of the data;
(iv)Translation of the system analysis into manpower requirements.
11.B. The points that should be considered in manpower planning includes-
i) The objectives and goals of the library and the performance to achieve these through implementation of services should be considered in the manpower planning;
ii) Besides the routine jobs the emphasis should also be given on changing circumstances, revised objectives and programme adjustment because libraries are constantly changing social organization. The social forces and new technology are always influencing factors of the library.
iii) The staff structure should facilitate the understanding of the role of individual responsibilities.
iv) Each staff should be given opportunity to make useful contribution to the general functioning of the library.
v) Motivation is of prime importance in a library because in the library it is the service which matters most.
vi) Adequate communication should be maintained among the staff member and the staff must be kept informed of facts affecting their work.
vii) The manpower planning also should give clear-cut guidelines about recruitment and selection, test, placement, induction and orientation, training and development, etc. (http://www.netugc.com/manpower-planning)
11.1 Objectives of manpower planning:-
The main objectives of Manpower planning are as follows:-
a) Proper assessment of the need of human resource in future.
b) Anticipation of shortage or surplus and taking the corrective action.
c) To create a highly talented personnel in the organization.
d) To look after the weaker section.
e) To manage the challenges in the organization due to modernization, restructuring and re-engineering.
f) To facilitate the realization of the organization’s objectives by providing right number and types of personnel.
g) To lower the costs associated with personnel by proper planning.
h) To determine the future skill requirement.
i) To do career planning for individual employee.
j) Providing a better view of Human resource dimensions to top management.
k) Determining the training and development needs of the employees.
11.2 Advantages of Manpower Planning:
The advantages of manpower planning are enumerated as follows:-
❖ It is useful both for organization and its employees.
❖ It generates facilities to educate people in the organization.
❖ It brings about fast economic developments.
❖ It boosts the geographical mobility of labour;
❖ It provides smooth working even after expansion of the organization ;
❖ It opens possibility for workers for future promotions, thus providing incentive;
❖ It creates healthy atmosphere of encouragement and motivation in the organization;
❖ Training becomes effective; and
❖ It provides help for career development of the employees.
11.3 Steps in Manpower Planning:-
❖ Predict manpower plans;
❖ Design job description and the job requirements;
❖ Find adequate sources of recruitment;
❖ Give boost to youngsters by appointment to higher posts;
❖ Best motivation for internal promotion;
❖ Look after the expected losses due to retirement, transfer and other issues and
❖ See for replacement due to accident, death, dismissals and promotion.
11.4. The process of manpower planning:- Analysis of Organization’s objectives and Plans:-In the process cited above, while analysing the organizational objectives and plans the manager must have to consider the factors like time period, organization’s strategic decisions, flexibility, formality etc.
A. Analysis of Manpower requirement:- Manpower requirement can be analysed by the existing job analysis and job design. The analysis can be divided into two parts:- a) Demand Forecasting and b) Supply Forecasting.
a) Demand Forecasting:- it is a process that estimate organization’s future quantity and quality of people required. In this process various forecasting techniques are used such as: – Managerial Judgement; Delphi technique; Work study techniques; Ratio- trend analysis and Mathematical models.
b) Supply Forecasting:- It provides the Human resource manager the estimation of number and type of personnel required. Supply forecasting provides information regarding the ability of organization to procure the required number of personnel. It is concerned with the ability of personnel from within and outside an organization. The supply forecasting includes HR audits; Analysis of internal supply and Analysis of external supply.
HR audits analyses the present employee’s skills and abilities giving detailed summary of the capabilities available in the organization.
Analysis of internal supply involves analysis of Absenteeism, Employee turnover and Productivity; Analysis of inflows and outflows and Movement among the jobs. Analysis of external supply analyses to look for the prospective employees from external sources.
B. Development and Implementation of Manpower plan:- This step refers to converting Manpower plans into action. As a part of implementation, a series of actions like recruitment, selection, training and development, retention are to be planned.
C. Control and review:- This is the final phase of the whole planning process. Regular monitoring or review is essential to reveal the deficiencies in the Planning process so that corrective measure could be taken in time.
The whole process of Manpower planning is diagrammatically represented as follows:-
(Source:- Randhawa, G (2012): Human Resource Management. New Delhi: Atlantic pp.30-31)
12. How to plan for a change in LIS professionals:-
Change is must with time. Similarly there is need to be changed for the LIS professionals in their attitude to work and to provide service to their users. These people must have the attitude to adopt latest trends of changes in case of the Information and communication technologies. Every time they must have to enhance their knowledge and skills when there is something new either in case of ICT or in case of the management strategy. For all these there must be a well defined plan how to go for the changes since every now and then there are changes and something new in ICT. In order to make a successful staff performance planning, it is necessary to start with an analysis of future tasks and roles of the library, decide priorities and go through the four steps outlined in the figure below:-
Skills identification, performance planning – in the ideal world
Preparing library staff for reference and information work in the hybrid library — the need for skills and continuing professional development. Proceedings IFLA, Durban, 2007: Reference and Information Service -Session 151- 23rd August 2007)
It is important for the library manager to consider what will be regarded as core skills of librarians according to the need of their own local context within the planning horizon and to determine what additional skills needed for the professionals. But not even careful planning and good assessment of skills and training gaps might be able to predict and take into account since a number of external factors that might influence the plans over a period of 1-3 years. The external factors such as funding bodies, policy issues, technologies, e- resources, technological infrastructure, the users’ needs and preferences might change much faster than the libraries are able to change their strategies for staff development and set up new programmes for training and education.
13. Conclusion: There is no doubt that capacity building of library staff is the need of the hour to keep in peace with time. As an organization library and information centres have to achieve their goal and also have to achieve the perceived value of their respective institutions. Libraries are service oriented institution and therefore they always have to take care of their users’ satisfaction. Now it is responsibility of the LIS professionals have to justify themselves and their services and have to establish their value to the parent organization. For this they have to develop their level of competencies and have to enhance their knowledge and skills to provide better service and also to satisfy their users. Good efforts have been made at policy making level to develop manpower in this direction. National Mission on Libraries is one of them. National Mission on Libraries will assess as soon as possible the manpower requirements of the country in the area of library and information science management and take necessary steps to meet the country’s requirement through Library and Information Science, education and training. Core competencies are necessary for library staff to serve the clientele in the changing scenario of library arena. Adaptable staff will allow libraries to serve this changing needs and expectations of the users. Library can recruit, hire and train library staff to make them responsive to the new and continuously changing library environment to cope with this phenomenon. NML has decided to initiate need-based training programmes for various categories of library professionals working in public and other libraries. These training/workshops, through well-designed training programmes (including training of trainers), will contribute towards the capacity building of library and information science professionals. The capacity building programme will be conducted in collaboration with those ‘universities and institutes which are already conducting programmes in Library and Information Sciences.
Original Research Article:
- Deepa, B. (2017). The factors of competency development among the working library professionals of the university libraries of North East India challenges and realities. Retrieved from: http://hdl.handle.net/10603/207716