ICT and Information

ICT: Concept and Definition

1. Introduction: The emergence of ICT is one of the wonderful gifts of modern science and technology which has brought tremendous changes in library and information science. Application of information and communication technology (ICT) to library and information work has revolutionized the traditional concept of libraries from a “Storehouse of books to an intellectual information center” connoting the concept of an electronic library. It has opened up a new chapter in library communication and facilitated global access to information crossing the geographical limitations.

ICT is being increasingly used in library and information services for acquisition, processing, and dissemination of information. Libraries have been using ICT based services to satisfy the diverse information needs of the users. The use of ICT has become increasingly important in special libraries as it is switching over to ICT based resources and services at an accelerated pace. The use of computers for library operation avoids respectively jobs and saves a considerable amount of time, resources and labor. It also speeds up technical processing and information services. ICT (Information & Communication Technilogy)

The impact of ICT is enormous and global in its magnitude, pervasiveness and usefulness because of its most distinguishing features of a dramatic decrease in cost, size and tremendous increase in processing speed, storage and communication capabilities. ICT has a profound effect on the progress and development of human civilization. The tools used in ICT include computer programs, databases, communication networks, analysis and design methods programming languages, artificial intelligence, knowledge bases, etc. ICT has long-standing influence in almost all areas of human activity.

2. ICT: Concept and Meaning:

`Information and Communication Technology’ (ICT) first appeared in the mid-1980s and was defined as “All kinds of electronic systems used for broadcasting telecommunications and mediated communications”, with examples including personal computers, video games, cell phones, internet, and electronic payment systems and computer S/W etc. The ICT is made of computer and communication technology. The computer technology is the tool for storing and processing information in digital form while communication technology helps us to transfer and disseminate digital information.

Additionally ICT means a variety of technological applications in the process and communication of information. The word ICT is a combination of two words information, communication & technology. Information means knowledge and technology means the use of computer & communication. The term ICT can be defined as “the integration of computing, networking, and information processing technologies and their applications”

Thus, ICT means a combination of computer applications’ and communication technology for gathering, processing, storing and disseminating of Information.

Information Communication Technology is a common term referring to the technologies used for collecting, storing, editing and communicating information in various formats.ICT means the use of computer-based technology and the Internet to make information and communication services available in a wide range of users. ICT Isa Hardware and Software that enable society to create, collect, consolidate and communicate information in a multimedia format and for various purposes. The term ICT includes any communication device or application, encompassing, radio, TV, cellular phones, computers and network, hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and application associated with them. ICT is playing a vital role in the current and future development of society and nation. ICT has affected all spheres of life and also the library. Information and communication technology (ICT) is a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate and to create, disseminate, store and manage information.

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are often associated with the most sophisticated and expensive computer-based technologies. ICTs are basically information-handling tools- a varied set of goods, applications and services that are used to produce, store, process, distribute and exchange information. ICT-Information and Communication Technology is a varied collection technological gear and resources which are made use of to communicate. They make use of to generate, distribute, collect & administer information. According to Anyakoha (1991), information technology is “the use of manmade tools for the collection, generation, communication, recording, re-management and exploitation of information. It includes those applications and commodities, by which information is transferred, recorded, edited, stored, manipulated or disseminated”. ICT is a mean that has changed many aspects of the way we live.

ICT includes the computer hardware, software, application of telecommunication technologies, projection devices, Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN), digital cameras, Compact Disks (CDs), Digital Video Disks (DVDs), cell phones, satellites, and fiber optics. Digital Technologies is not a single technology. It is combinations of two or more technologies in that system. Some of this new ICT & digital technologies are as follows:

  • Multimedia PCs, Lap Top, Notebook

– Combination of Internet connectivity with PCs and laptops

  • Digital camera / video

– connected with PCs and laptop

  •  LAN & WAN

– Internet and Intranet

  • WWW (World Wide Web)

– Internet

– Online Databases

– Video conferences

– E-mail, discussion lists and newsgroup and chat

– Digital Libraries

– E-books / E-journals/ E-databases

  • Floppies, CDs and DVDs

– Offline databases

  • Cell Phones

– With Internet connection, digital camera and moving pictures

  • E-books / E-journals/ E-databases
  • Computer-mediated conferences

– Video conferencing

– Telemedicine

  • Virtual reality
  • Telecommunication satellites
  • Interactive TV and Radio

3. Definition of ICT:

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) may be defined as the convergence of electronics, computing, and telecommunications. It has unleashed a tidal wave of technological innovation in the collecting, storing, processing, transmission, and presentation of information that has not only transformed the information technology sector itself into a highly dynamic and expanding field of activity- creating new markets and generating new investment, income and jobs but also provided other sectors with more rapid and efficient mechanisms for responding to shifts in demand patterns and changes in international comparative advantage, through more efficient production processes and new and improved products and services.

Today, the definition of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is much broader, encompassing nearly every type of business. From manufactures, retailers, banks, and publishers to research firms, medical institutions, law enforcement agencies, government companies and library everywhere rely on Information and Communication Technology workers to run their daily businesses.

Dictionaries consistently define ICT means: managing a network of computers, creating original web pages, producing videos digitally, designing computer systems as a consultant, selling products on the Internet, 3-D artwork, administering a company’s database, coding software, providing technical support, managing projects, and budgets, writing technical documentation.

ICT is combinations of Information Technology and Communication Technology.

What is Information Technology (IT)?

Information Technology is defined in the Oxford Advanced Dictionary as “the study use of electronic equipment, especially computers for storing out information”

What is Communication Technology (CT)?

Communication Technology is the process of sending, receiving and exchanging information through network systems with the help of IT & CT. Any information can be exchanged from anywhere and anytime without any borders. This information exchange is possible through LAN, expanding and connecting to other networks globally.

According to the Encyclopedia of Computer Science, “Information Communication Technology (ICT) is an imprecise term frequently applied to broad areas of activities and technologies associated with the use of computers and communications”.

According to Mahaptra and Ramesh ICT, as “Information Communication Technology is the result of the technological convergence of existing single isolated technologies viz, computer technology, communication technology, information processing, publishing technology etc.”

According to UNESCO “ICT is a scientific, technological and engineering discipline and management techniques used in handling information and application and association with social, economical and cultural matters”.

Nwachukwu (2004), Information and communication technologies (ICTs) is the application of computers and other technologies to the acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information. However, in this context, information and communication technology is the use of electronic devices such as computers, telephones, internet, and satellite system, to store, retrieve and disseminate information in the form of data, text image and others.

American Library Association (1983) defined information communication technology (ICT) as the application of computers and other technologies to the acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information. The computers are used to process and store data, while telecommunication technology provides information communication tools, which make it possible for users to access databases and link them with other computer networks at different locations.

Rhine (2006) Information and Communication Technologies can be split into three components namely the technology part; information that the technology helps to deliver; and a communication process that the technology facilitates and serves as a medium for the information.

So, we can define Information and Communication Technology-ICT as ‘the use and applications of computers, telecommunications, and micro-electronics in the acquisition, storage, retrieval, transfer and dissemination of information’.

4 Characteristics of ICT :

There are many special characteristics of ICT application. Some special characteristics are as follows:

Effectiveness:

– Most interactive

– Fewer errors

– Customized

– Personalized

– Achievable

– Transparent

– Searchable

– Acceptable

Efficiency:

– Faster

– Cheaper

– Fewer steps

– Lower costs

– Fewer people

– Less paperwork

Innovation:

– New product

– New technologies


Reference Article:

  • K.m, P. (2018). Use of ict resources and services at state university libraries in Gujarat a study.
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Md. Ashikuzzaman

Work at North South University Library, Bangladesh.

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