The term budgeting refers to the process of budget planning and preparation, budgetary control and related procedures. The formal presentation of the plan is called budget. Budget is the written statement of income and expenditure during the year. It covers all items of work to be taken up over a specified period of time in future. thus an overall budget covering the institution as a whole is also known as master budget. A library is an estimate of expected income and expenditure of the library for the coming year. Being merely an estimate, it can be altered, due to change in circumstances. Budgeting is usually done on early basis. The most central aspect of financial management of library is the budget, which is a statement of income and expenditure of the library. It is also an instrument of control, communication, coordination, evaluation and motivation.
Objectives of Library budgeting:
The overall objectives of library budgeting is to plan different phases of library operations.
Coordinate activities of different departments of library and to ensure effective control over it. Thus specific objectives are as follows:
- To predict library’s future services, services cost and other costs to achieve desired goal.
- To anticipate library’s future financial condition and future needs for funds with a view to keeping the library active and up-to-date.
- To coordinate the efforts to different departments and departments of the library towards the common objectives.
- To accelerate the efficiency of operations of different divisions and departments of the library.
- To fix responsibilities of different departmental head.
- To have effective control over the library’s fund.
Factors effecting budget.
- Size of the library- collection, staff, users and services points.
- Kinds of the library services.
- Types of users.
There are few methods of preparing library budgets, which includes both the traditional approaches used by Marty organizations and more innovative one that have recently found their way into libraries.
Methods of library budget:
a. Line by line item budget: In this type of budgets, the items of the expenditure are divided line by line, into broad categories such as books and journals, salaries and allowances equipment, contingencies etc. With further sub-divisions of each of these broad categories. This is the usual traditional method which, by taking into account past expenditure of the previous years’ allocation, assuming that all current programmers’ are good and necessary. this budgetary method does not go into evaluation of activities and services of performance.
b. Lump sum budget: In lump sum budget, a certain amount of money is allocated to the library. In this, the library got freedom to decide as to how the amount is going-to be allocated to different categories.
c. Formula budget: In formula budget predetermined standards are applied for allocation of money. Such a budget is technical and easy to prepare. It does not require special skills to prepare the same.
d. Program me budget: It does not estimate the expenditure on the basis of the individual items. it is focused on the activities that the library plans. Hence the budget is prepared on the basis of the cost of programme. Every year, the library has to decide whether a program me has to continue, get modified, or deleted.
e. Performance budget: This method is similar to programme budget but in this method the emphasis is given to performance in place of programmes. The expenditure is based on the performances of the activities and the stress is given to operational efficiency. The careful accumulation of quantitative data on all activities over a period of time is required. Management techniques such as cost benefit analysis are used to measure the performance and establish med norms. Hence this method measures only the quantity not quality.
f. Planning programming budgeting system: PPBS method combines the best of both program budget and performance budget, and focuses on planning. it begins with the establishment of goal and objectives and ends with formulation of programmes and services. This method combines the functions of planning activities. Programmes and services, translating them into tangible projects and finally presents the requirements in budgetary terms.
g. Zero based budget: This method is similar to PPBS conceptually but does not take into accounted that what happened in the past but emphasizes on the current activities. Every programme and activity is spelled out in detail, and request for financial support to there has be established afresh every years. In fact, no activating could continue simply because that activity was undertaken previous year.
- Reference Article: Hossain, M. S. (2012). Collection development in central library, university of delhi and central library, jawaharlal nehru university: a survey. University.