• English

    Scientific Methods of Research.

    In the preceding sections, we described science as knowledge acquired through a scientific method.  So what exactly is the “scientific method”?  Scientific method refers to a standardized set of techniques for building scientific knowledge, such as how to make valid observations, how to interpret results, and how to generalize those results.  The scientific method allows researchers to independently and impartially test preexisting theories and prior findings, and subject them to open debate, modifications, or enhancements. …

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  • English

    Scientific Research

    Given that theories and observations are the two pillars of science, scientific research operates at two levels: a theoretical level and an empirical level.  The theoretical level is concerned with developing abstract concepts about a natural or social phenomenon and relationships between those concepts (i.e., build “theories”), while the empirical level is concerned with testing the theoretical concepts and relationships to see how well they reflect our observations of reality, with the goal of ultimately…

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  • English

    Scientific Knowledge.

    What Is Scientific Knowledge? The purpose of science is to create scientific knowledge.  Scientific knowledge refers to a generalized body of laws and theories to explain a phenomenon or behaviour of interest that are acquired using the scientific method.  Laws are observed patterns of phenomena or behaviours, while theories are systematic explanations of the underlying phenomenon or behaviour.  For instance, in physics, the Newtonian Laws of Motion describe what happens when an object is in…

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  • English

    What is science?

     To some, science refers to difficult high school or college-level courses such as physics, chemistry, and biology meant only for the brightest students.  To others, science is a craft practiced by scientists in white coats using specialized equipment in their laboratories.  Etymologically, the word “science” is derived from the Latin word scientia meaning knowledge.  Science refers to a systematic and organized body of knowledge in any area of inquiry that is acquired using “the scientific…

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  • English

    Research Design

    Meaning of Research Design: The formidable problem that follows the task of defining the research problem is the preparation of the design of the research project, popularly known as the “research design”. Decisions regarding what, where, when, how much, by what means concerning an inquiry or a research study constitute a research design. “A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance…

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  • English

    Criteria of Good Research

    Whatever may be the types of research works and studies, one thing that is important is that they all meet on the common ground of scientific method employed by them. One expects scientific research to satisfy the following criteria1: The purpose of the research should be clearly defined and common concepts be used. The research procedure used should be described in sufficient detail to permit another researcher to repeat the research for further advancement, keeping…

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  • English

    Common Mistakes in Research

    The research process is fraught with problems and pitfalls, and novice researchers often find, after investing substantial amounts of time and effort into a research project, that their research questions were not sufficiently answered, or that the findings were not interesting enough, or that the research was not of “acceptable” scientific quality.  Such problems typically result in research papers being rejected by journals.  Some of the more frequent mistakes are described below. Insufficiently motivated research…

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  • The Knowledge Society

    In recent years there has been growing interest in the concept of the knowledge society. This new concept has been ushered in by the information technology revolution, and it goes beyond data processing and the dissemination of information. It is about the integration of information into existing knowledge, the creation of new knowledge from current knowledge, and the sharing of knowledge in a global sense. It means finding new ways to use knowledge to enhance…

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  • English

    A brief information about Dictionary.

    What is Dictionary? The dictionary is the most widely used reference source in all types of libraries. It is one of the most common reference sources referred by the students, teachers, and researchers. The dictionary provides information about words. It is most commonly used for defining the word of language to understand the difficult words, meaning, pronunciation, etc. Development in universe of knowledge, development of new words, complexity of reading materials, development of new subjects,…

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  • English

    Difference between General and Subject Encyclopaedia

    The main differences between general encyclopaedia and subject encyclopaedias are shown in table:         General Encyclopaedia          Subject Encyclopaedia General encyclopaedias contain a of articles and provide essential information about all the brunches of knowledge. The scope of subject encyclopaedias is limited to a clearly defined branch of knowledge. The level of treatment is likely to be non-technical and general in nature. The level of treatment is likely to be highly technical or scholarly. The…

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