research.Types of research

Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. It is a scientific and systematic search for pertinentinformation on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation.
Cambridge Dictionary lays down the meaning of research as, “A detailed study of a subject, specially in order to discover new information or reach a new understanding.”
According to Kerlinger, “Research is a systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical proposition about the presumed relations among natural phenomena.”
According to Oxford English Dictionary, “The systematic investigation and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.”
“Creative work undertaken as a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of human, culture and society” – Wikipedia.
Redman and Mory define research as a “systematized effort to gain new knowledge.”
Some people consider research as a movement, a movement from the known to the unknown. It is actually a voyage of discovery. We all possess the vital instinct of inquisitiveness for, when the unknown confronts us, we wonder and
our inquisitiveness makes us probe and attain full and fuller understanding of the unknown. This inquisitiveness is the mother of all knowledge and the method, which man employs for obtaining the knowledge of whatever the unknown, can be termed as research.
Types of Research
The basic types of research are as follows:
Descriptive Research:
Descriptive research is a fact finding investigation which is aimed at describing the characteristics of individual, situation or a group, describing the state of affairs as it exists at present.
The researcher studies the relationships of the variables.The main characteristic of this method is that the researcher has no control over the variables; he can only report what has happened or what is happening. Usually it forms preliminary study of a research project. It provides background information about an event in question. In short descriptive research deals with everything that can be counted and studied, which has an impact of the lives of the people it deals with. Descriptive research, also known as statistical research.
For example, A student of Management pursue a research on customer about a product or service.
The advantages of this type of research is, it is less expensive and time consuming. The main disadvantage is
it requires more skills and it does not identify cause behind a phenomenon
Analytical Research:
Analytical research is preliminary concerned with testing hypothesis and specifying and interpreting relationships, by analyzing the facts or information already available. Researcher use facts or information already available, and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material.
As for example: Research on a company’s financial performance over long time.
Applied research:
Research can either be applied (or action) research or fundamental (basic or pure) research. Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial/business organization,
Research to identify social, economic or political trends that may affect a particular institution is the example of applied research.
Fundamental research:
Fundamental research also known as basic or pure research is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice. It is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity and is not necessarily problem oriented. It is done for the development of theories and principles.
Quantitative research:
Quantitative research refers to the systematic investigation of any phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques. It is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity.
The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and/or hypotheses pertaining to phenomena.
Statistical analysis is used in it. Thus it’s another name is statistical research
6.   Qualitative
Qualitative research is concerned with qualitative phenomenon,
i.e. phenomena relating to or involving quality or kind.
personality and mankind are examples of variables used to measure qualitative
Conceptual research:
Conceptual research is that related to some abstract idea(s) or
theory. It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new
concepts or to reinterpret existing ones.
Empirical research:
Empirical research is a data based research relies on experience
or observation alone. It is aimed at coming up with conclusion without due
regard for system and theory.
primary characteristic of experimental research is manipulation of at least one
variables and control over the other relevant variables so as to measure its
effect on one or more dependent variables. It is the only type of research
which can establish truly the cause and effect relations.
Experimental research:
Experimental research is an objective, systematic, controlled
investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling phenomena and
examining probability and causality among selected variables.It is designed to assess the effect of one particular variable on
a phenomenon by keeping the other variables constant or control.
In such a research, the researcher must first provide himself with
a working hypothesis or guess as to the probable results. He then works to get
enough facts (data) to prove or disprove his hypothesis.
Experimental research is commonly used in sciences such as
sociology, psychology, physics, chemistry, biology and medicine etc.
It is the preliminary study of an
unfamiliar problem, about which the researcher has a little or no knowledge.
It is aimed to gain familiarity with the
problem, to generate new ideas or to make a precise formulation of the problem.
Hence, it is also known as formulative research.
It is the study of past records and other
information sources, with a view to find the origin and development of a
phenomenon and to discover the trends in the past, in order to understand the
present and to anticipate the future.
The historical method of research applies
to all fields of study because it encompasses their: origin, growth, theories
Conclusive research:
conclusive research is designed to test specific hypothesis and examine
specific relationship. It is conducted to draw some conclusion about the
It is also called clinical research which
aims of identifying the causes of a problem, frequency with it occurs and
possible solution for it.
E.g. researches done by doctors on a
crucial disease.


Declaration: Articles shared in this blog are collected from different sources available on the internet to help students of Library and Information Science. Sources are mentioned in the reference section of the article. If you have any objections about the content of this blog, feel free to contact the site admin at media24xnew@gmail.com

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