GeneralICT and Information

Types of Information Sources

Different types of Information Sources in Library

Generally information sources are classified into three types depends on the information available from the resource.

1. Primary Sources of Information: Primary sources are original materials. They are from the time period involved and have not been filtered through interpretation or evaluation. Primary sources are original materials on which other research is based. They are usually the first formal appearance of results in physical, print or electronic format. They present original thinking, report a discovery, or share new information. The definition of a primary source may vary depending upon the discipline or context.Information Sources

Some primary resources are given below:

  • Artifacts (e.g. coins, plant specimens, fossils, furniture, tools, clothing, all from the time under study);
  • Audio recordings (e.g. radio programs)
  • Diaries;
  • Internet communications on email, list serves;
  • Interviews (e.g., oral histories, telephone, e-mail);
  • Journal articles published in peer-reviewed publications;
  • Letters;
  • Newspaper articles written at the time;
  • Original Documents (i.e. birth certificate, will, marriage license, trial transcript);
  • Patents;
  • Photographs;
  • Proceedings of Meetings, conferences and symposia;
  • Records of organizations, government agencies (e.g. annual report, treaty, constitution, government document);
  • Speeches;
  • Survey Research (e.g., market surveys, public opinion polls);
  • Video recordings (e.g. television programs);
  • Works of art, architecture, literature, and music (e.g., paintings, sculptures, musical scores, buildings, novels, poems).
  • Web site.

2. Secondary Sources of Information: Secondary sources are less easily defined than primary sources. Generally, they are accounts written after the fact with the benefit of hindsight. They are interpretations and evaluations of primary sources. Secondary sources are not evidence, but rather commentary on and discussion of evidence. However, what some define as a secondary source, others define as a tertiary source. Context is everything. The definition of a secondary source may vary depending upon the discipline or context.

Some Secondary resources are given below:

  • Bibliographies (also considered tertiary);
  • Biographical works;
  • Commentaries, criticisms;
  • Dictionaries, Encyclopedias (also considered tertiary);
  • Histories;
  • Journal articles (depending on the disciple can be primary);
  • Magazine and newspaper articles(this distinction varies by discipline);
  • Monographs, other than fiction and autobiography;
  • Textbooks (also considered tertiary);
  • Web site (also considered primary).

3. Tertiary Sources of information: Tertiary sources consist of information which is a distillation and collection of primary and secondary sources.

Some Tertiary resources are given below:

  • Bibliography of Bibliographies;
  • Almanacs;
  • Bibliographies (also considered secondary);
  • Chronologies;
  • Dictionaries and Encyclopedias(also considered secondary);
  • Directories;
  • Fact books;
  • Guide books;
  • Indexes, abstracts, bibliographies used to locate primary and secondary sources;
  • Manuals;
  • Textbooks (also be secondary).

Reference:

  • Muthumari, P. (2013). Utilization of traditional and electronic resources in higher education. University. Retrieved from http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in
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Md. Ashikuzzaman

Work at North South University Library, Bangladesh.

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