data in a comprehensive from recorded on paper or some other medium and capable
of communication. According to the needs and nature we found four approaches of
It provides exhaustive information on a special
field of subject or its area. Inclusive information.
It’s a well-organised need to find out all
relevant literature or as much as possible on a subject.
In this approach user is expert in his field.
Indexing is the most convenient mechanism to
provide the appropriate access for exhaustive approach. In exhaustive approach
it requires primary sources of information but it may also depend on secondary
Such approach is occasional.
Exhaustive coverage is the main emphasis,
although speed is also important.
Information sought on a specific subject query.
As for example, what books are available on
Information on recent, Latest and up-to-date developments
in broad subject areas is sought.
No need of any search logic or strategy
It is not for any specific query
Speed is the main emphasis, coverage has to be
It is not always necessary to go to the original
document as retrieval is not always the intention.
In most cases user is satisfied to know that a
particular piece of work has speared in print or somebody is working on
particular problem or the result of a particular work is expected to be
published in the near future or so on.
There should have an appropriate device that
providing a direct link between the user and the communication system. These
devices are called Current Awareness Service (CAS).
Required information is for temporary use only.
Periodicals, journals etc. can be the best
source of this kind of information.
It is more still more occasional.
Sometimes the research worker needs information
of the subject area which is not a area of his own interest. But needs
information to supplement his studies on his specific subject area or the area
of interest. This is likely to be area in which he is not an expert. In such
situation, the research worker expects to have a communication channel or
device which will help him quickly catching up with the subject
Need short information not inclusive. This
approach is totally contrary to exhaustive approach.
As for example, a library science researcher has
to join a seminar and to deliver speech on ‘philosophy’. This researcher is not
expert on philosophy and it is not his subject of interest. In this context he needs abstract information
subject not vast information on philosophy. Here comes the need of catching up
This approach is frequent need of Research
worker, in the course of his investigation, for specific piece of information,
such as date, method, formula etc. The nature of information is very specific
and needs a quick answer. Librarians call it “Short Range Reference
Service’. Because of its frequency of occurrence, it is called “Everyday
This type of information gets changed
As for example, statistical data, sharemarket
data, weather report, market price, currency rate etc.